Methodological considerations in the optical dating of quartz

Crystal is the common term used in electronics for the frequency-determining component, a wafer of quartz crystal or ceramic with electrodes connected to it.

A more accurate term for it is piezoelectric resonator.

This property is known as electrostriction or inverse piezoelectricity.

When the field is removed, the quartz - which oscillates in a precise frequency - generates an electric field as it returns to its previous shape, and this can generate a voltage.

Financial support for this project was provided by the Swiss National Foundation (SNF), Project numbers 200020-105453/1, 200020-118023/1, and 206021–117374, and the Berne University Research Foundation.

Sönke Szidat is thanked for high-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements, Marco Herwegh for introducing DR to the SEM, and Jörg Giese, Sally Lowick, Inga Schindelwig, Damian Steffen, Michèle Suchy, and Mareike Trauerstein for helpful discussions and comments.

A crystal oscillator, particularly one made of quartz crystal, works by being distorted by an electric field when voltage is applied to an electrode near or on the crystal.The Quaternary Vakinankaratra volcanic field in the central Madagascar highlands consists of scoria cones, lava flows, tuff rings, and maars.These volcanic landforms are the result of processes triggered by intracontinental rifting and overlie Precambrian basement or Neogene volcanic rocks.We acknowledge helpful comments from two anonymous reviewers and thank executive editor James D. White for additional critical comments which helped to improve the manuscript. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 32(3), 463–505.

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